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Finding Aids for Manuscripts at Individual Repositories

A Guide to the Walt Whitman Poetry Manuscripts at the Clifton Waller Barrett Library of American Literature, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia

Original records created by the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library; revised and expanded by The Walt Whitman Archive and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries. Encoded Archival Description completed through the assistance of the Gladys Kreible Delmas Foundation, the University of Nebraska Research Council, and the Institute for Museum and Library Services.


Title: Walt Whitman Poetry Manuscripts in the Papers of Walt Whitman, Clifton Waller Barrett Library of American Literature, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia

Collection Number: MSS 3829, 5604


Creator:  Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892


Repository:  Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, Alderman Memorial Library

Abstract:
This finding aid was created through a comprehensive examination of original manuscripts held at The Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia.

Scope and Content: 
The Clifton Waller Barrett Library of American Literature in the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia holds one of the world's most extensive and varied collections of documents related to Walt Whitman, including drafts of poetry and prose, notes, letters, printed versions of Whitman compositions (many with holograph annotations by the author), photographs, prints, legal documents, a map, and pieces written about Whitman by others. This electronic finding aid includes item-level description of these items.

Biographical Information:
For additional biographical information, see "Walt Whitman," by Ed Folsom and Kenneth M. Price, and the chronology of Whitman's Life.

Subjects:
Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892;  Whitman, Walt, 1819-1892—Manuscripts;  Poets, American—19th century; 


Series Description and Item Lists


Boxes: MSS3829 A Carol of Harvest and The Return of the Heroes, pages 1-29
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00129
Title:  "A Carol of Harvest, for 1867"
Date: 1867
Physical Description: 29 leaves, 19.5 x 12.5, handwritten
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The poem "A Carol of Harvest for 1867" was published first in The Galaxy, September 1867, and reprinted one month later in Tinsely's Magazine (London). A revised version of the poem was added to Passage to India (1871). The 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass includes a further revised version entitled "The Return of the Heroes" . These manuscript pages were likely revised prior to the poem's first publication.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Death's Valley
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00073
Title:  "Death's Valley"
Date: about 1889
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 35.5 x 21.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5 
Whitman's correspondence indicates that the poem was written and sold to Harper's New Monthly Magazine in 1889, although it did not appear there until April 1892, after the poet's death. Whitman originally included the poem in his 1891 manuscript for the "Second Annex" "Good-Bye My Fancy," and Traubel grouped it in the cluster "Old Age Echoes," which he added to Leaves of Grass in 1897. The Harper's printing included an engraving, "The Valley of the Shadow of Death," by American painter George Inness, which appeared facing the poem. On the verso appear the notes "Death's Valley" (twice) and "Magazine/ April, 1892" in, possibly, Whitman executor Horace Traubel's hand.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Hast never come to thee in life one hour
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00058
Title:  "Hast never come to thee an hour"
Date: about 1881
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14 x 22 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1 
This manuscript contains two drafts of the poem "Hast Never Come to Thee an Hour," the first draft having been deleted with two horizontal and two diagonal pencil lines. The partly erased word "Interp[ellation?]" appears in the lower left corner. After further revision the poem appeared for the first time in the 1881 Leaves of Grass, in the cluster "By the Roadside." Since the poetry manuscript has been pasted onto a piece of cardboard, the verso is not visible.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Inscription at the entrance of Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00060
Title:  "Inscription"
Date: between 1855 and 1867
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 19.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript entitled "Inscription" appears to be a revision of other "Inscriptions" Whitman gathered in a notebook, along with prose drafts for a never-finished introduction to Leaves of Grass, and attached to his copy of the 1855 paper-bound edition. (The entire collection of draft "inscription" and introductory material is currently housed at the New York Public Library.) In the 1867 Leaves of Grass Whitman culled material from this poem and the other "Inscription" poems to create an italicized "Inscription" that he placed before "Starting from Paumanok" at the beginning of the book; in that edition he also transferred part of verse 2 to "As I Sat Alone by Blue Ontario's Shore" (later the line was dropped and the title was revised to "By Blue Ontario's Shore" ). From 1872 onward, this poem, revised and retitled "One's-Self I Sing," was printed as the first of several poems in the "Inscriptions" cluster that opened the book. In the 1888 November Boughs, however, Whitman reprinted the 1867 version as "Small the Theme of my Chant." Note: This manuscript draft may have been written before the Civil War, since it does not include the 1867 line "My Days I sing, and the Lands—with interstice I knew / of hapless War."

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: My picture gallery
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00061
Title:  "My picture gallery"
Date: between 1850 and 1880
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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Originally titled "Pictures," this manuscript is a revision of the first four verses of a draft poem by that name, inscribed by Whitman in a twenty-nine page notebook before the first edition of Leaves of Grass appeared in 1855. The notes "? for children" and "extend this?" appear in the upper left corner. The final verse appears in the upper right corner. After further revision Whitman published these verses in the October 30, 1880 issue of The American under the title "My Picture-Gallery," after which he placed it in the new cluster "Autumn Rivulets" in the 1881 edition.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Song of the Redwood Tree
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00064
Title:  "Song of the Redwood Tree"
Date: about 1873
Physical Description: 20 leaves, 11 x 12.5 cm to 22.5 x 17.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript contains a rough draft of the poem "Song of the Redwood-Tree" written, according to a note intialed by Whitman, during October and November 1873 prior to its first publication in the February 1874 issue of Harper's Magazine. In 1876 the poem was published in the group "Centennial Songs" and annexed to Two Rivulets. The poem appears ungrouped again in Leaves of Grass (1881). Several leaves contain deleted and undeleted titles or variant verse references to other published poems: "Eidólons" , "Waves in the Vessel's Wake" , "(a sonnet)" written "for Century Verses," which appears from a Library of Congress manuscript to have been a working title of the group that became "Centennial Verses" and "A California song" .

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Song of the Redwood Tree [I/ A California song]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00067
Title:  "Song of the Redwood Tree"
Date: about 1873
Physical Description: 11 leaves, , handwritten
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This manuscript contains a rough draft of the poem "Song of the Redwood-Tree" written, according to a note intialed by Whitman, during October and November 1873 prior to its first publication in the February 1874 issue of Harper's Magazine. In 1876 the poem was published in the group "Centennial Songs" and annexed to Two Rivulets. The poem appears ungrouped again in Leaves of Grass (1881). The similarities between this manuscript draft and the Harper's edition of the poem seem to indicate that Whitman revised these pages in preparation for the first publication.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Songs of Departure
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00069
Title:  "Songs of Departure"
Date: about 1881
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 12 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript appears to have been a trial cover leaf for the cluster "Songs of Parting," new to the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman struck out the words "A few" above the current title, but left undeleted four other possibilities at the top of the leaf: "Songs of Departure/ Departing,/ Termination/ Completion."

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Three Verses—One for North, etc.
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00071
Title:  "Three Verses"
Date: 1860s or 1870s
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 22.5 x 13.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript contains possible notes for two poems "[One?] Song—Come Philander" and "Three verses" which appears beneath a horizontal line. The poems were apparently never revised further and were never published. The leaf has been folded in half, and the verso contains two independent texts. One is a list of names and addresses including family members, friends, and supporters. The other seems to be notes for a newspaper announcement, beginning "Walt Whitman, after an absence of almost three years, appeared again on Pennsylvania Avenue this forenoon." Based on this date it can be speculated that the notes were written late in 1875 (a possibility corroborated by the list of names), but the poem(s) may have been inscribed in the late 1860s or earlier.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: ALS Walt Whitman to [?] [note]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00051
Title:  "Embers of Ending Day"
Date: between 1880 and 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9.5 cm x 11 cm, handwritten
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The manuscript appears to be a draft of a title or titles. The lines on the manuscript—"Embers of Ending Day," "Embers of day-fires mouldering"—are echoed in the partial line "the embers left from earlier fires" in the 1888 poem, "Continuities." On the verso is a note, dated December 28, 1880, confirming a request for a set of Whitmans's books: "Dear Sir, I shall be glad to supply you with a set (Two Volumes) of my books—There is only one kind of binding—Walt Whitman."

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: A Thought of Columbus
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00070
Title:  "A Thought of Columbus"
Date: 1891
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 12.5 cm x 25 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
A draft of "A Thought of Columbus," a poem first published on July 16, 1892, in Once a Week, accompanied by Horace Traubel's account of its composition, called "Walt Whitman's Last Poem." This manuscript is a draft of only the first six lines and is dated 1891.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 1
Folder: Of all themes and of each
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00081
Title:  "[Of All themes and of each]"
Date: about 1876
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 19.5 cm x 8.5 cm and 5.5 cm x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1 
The manuscript contains heavily revised draft lines written in pencil beginning "Of all themes and of each." The relationship between the draft lines and Whitman's published verse is unknown.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: They do not seem to me
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00110
Title:  "They do not seem to me"
Date: about 1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 13 cm x 11.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript is a draft of lines that were published in "Chants Democratic," number 13, in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. That poem was later revised and published as "Laws for Creations" ; however, the lines on this manuscript are a draft of the section of the poem that was deleted after the 1860 publication.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: The Whale-boat [Memoranda from Books sect. 114, last pt.]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00117
Title:  "The Whale-boat"
Date: late 1850s
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 cm x 12 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript contains notes about whales that mirror a passage about whales published in "Song of Myself" . A direct relationship of this manuscript to Whitman's published work is unknown, although a possible relationship also exists with drafts of the poem "The Sleepers" in which Whitman was working with the idea of a whale being harpooned. These notes may be a continuation of notes written on two separate scraps and held at Duke University (The Trent Collection of Walt Whitman Manuscripts, Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library), "The Whale," MS 4to 88.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: [A cluster of poems]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00086
Title:  "[A cluster of poems]"
Date: about 1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 19.5 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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These notes for a cluster of poems that Whitman characterisizes as being "in the same way as Calamus Leaves expressing the idea and sentiment of Happiness . . . " appear on the verso of a page of prose notes for a poem or essay to be titled "Living Pictures" or "America." These notes mirror thoughts and expressions contained in the 1855 Preface. The manuscript lists various occupations and includes the phrase "not one jot less than" factors which bear relation to the poem eventually titled "Song for Occupations" appearing for the first time as an untitled poem in the 1855 edition. Whitman's use of the old long "s" in the word "less" indicates that the leaf was inscribed quite early in his poetic career. Whitman's use of the title "Calamus Leaves" on the opposite side, as in some very similar notes currently housed at Duke University, point toward the 1860 cluster "Enfans d'Adam" and dates the notes to some point in the late spring of 1859.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: After the Supper and Talk
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00082
Title:  "After the Supper and Talk"
Date: about 1885
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 25 x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
A draft of "After the Supper and Talk" . This poem was rejected by Harper's in 1885 but published in Lippincott's Magazine in November 1887, after which it eventually became the final poem in the "First Annex" titled "Sands at Seventy." To the verso are pasted sections 16 and 18-19 of "Poem of Joys" (final title: "A Song of Joys" ) clipped either from the independent book Passage to India (1871) or from the "Passage to India" supplement to Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: The dalliance of the eagles
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00092
Title:  "The dalliance of the eagles"
Date: about 1880
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 12 x 19 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The poem was first published in the November 1880 issue of Cope's Tobacco Plant and became one of the new poems in the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass, where it appeared in the cluster "By the Roadside." At some point this leaf was pasted to a cardboard print of a photograph of Whitman stamped "Thomas C. Watkins" on the verso, but almost identical to one attributed by Henry Scholey Saunders, author of 100 Walt Whitman Photographs, to the studio of Frederick Gutekunst in Philadelphia, and reproduced in the 1889 pocket edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: To a Literat
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00114
Title:  "To a Literat"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf
View Images:  1  |  2 
The first two verses, taken more or less directly from a prose manuscript, "[Of Biography]," have no revisions, but the remaining three verses represent a significant expansion of the themes in the prose notes and are extensively revised. These verses, which precede "[Walt Whitman's law]" in the composition process, correspond, like "[Of Biography]," to section 13 of the 1860 version of the poem "Chants Democratic and Native American" which was revised and permanently retitled "Laws for Creations" in 1872.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: [Walt Whitman's law]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00115
Title:  "[Walt Whitman's law]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf
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This leaf bears the deleted title "To an artist, literat, &c" . The first line "Come, I have now to tell you" revises and expands on another manuscript "To a Literat" . These lines were eventually revised to form section 13 of the 1860 version of the poem "Chants Democratic" which was revised and permanently retitled "Laws for Creations" in 1872.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: The Mystic Trumpeter
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00098
Title:  "[Hark! some wild trumpeter]"
Date: about 1872
Physical Description: 9 leaves, 25 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
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"The Mystic Trumpeter" was first published in the February 1872 issue of The Kansas Magazine, after which Whitman published it in the 1872 book As a Strong Bird on Pinions Free, in the 1876 Two Rivulets, and in the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass. There and in later editions the poem was included in "From Noon to Starry Night." Other drafts of the poem are housed in the Charles E. Feinberg Collection at the Library of Congress, the Trent Memorial Collection at Duke University, and the T.E. Hanley Collection at the University of Texas.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: Poem of Fables
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00103
Title:  "Poem of Fables"
Date: 1850s
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 20 x 12 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Two sets of deleted verses constitute adaptations of lines from Whitman's pre-1855 unpublished notebook "Pictures" "Now this is the fable of the mirror" and "And Now this is the fable of a beautiful statue." Two other deleted potential fables ideas also appear: "The trained runner" and "The five old men." At the foot of the leaf appears the note "last piece (still another Death Song— Death Song with prophecies." All of the sections are demarcated with horizontal lines. Based on Whitman's use of the tax blank, the manuscript appears to be a set of notes he made between 1857 and 1859 while preparing the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. The "Poem of Fables" as such never materialized, but a poem simply titled "Fables" was incorporated into the second section of the poem "Passage to India" , first published in 1871. Whitman's "Pictures" were not published in their entirety until 1925. Whitman uses the phrase "well-train'd runner" in "The Runner" , a poem which first appeared in Leaves of Grass in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: Sail Out for Good
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00106
Title:  "[But outset and sure]"
Date: about 1891
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 17.5 x 21.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains trial verses for the poem "Sail Out for Good, Eidólon Yacht!," first published in the March 1891 issue of Lippincott's Magazine in a group titled "Old-Age Echoes" . The top part of this manuscript has been cut away, leaving the emendations to what would become line 5 of the poem only partly visible. Whitman grouped "Sail Out for Good, Eidólon Yacht!" in his "Second Annex," titled "Good-Bye My Fancy" , to the 1891 edition of Leaves of Grass. The pencil note "Sail Out for good, Eidólon Yacht / Good Bye My Fancy / Page 7" appears in the lower left corner, below two new drafts of the ending lines.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: Song of the Answerer
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00118
Title:  "[Time always without break]"
Date: 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 28 x 21.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains two lines from Whitman's poem "Song of the Answerer." This fair copy was evidently made for an admirer: it includes Whitman's autograph in large letters above the lines "Camden New Jersey / March 14 1887—." The lines from the poem are quoted without revision from the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass, followed by the citation "(L of Grass—p 137)," which refers to the 1881 system of pagination. These lines come from the first verse paragraph of section 2 of the poem. This section began as the independent composition "19—Poem of The Singers, and of The Words of Poems" in 1856, after which it underwent various changes in content, title, and position until being joined with "Now List to My Morning Romanza" in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: [Lo]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00112
Title:  "[Lo, where arise three peerless stars]"
Date: 1886
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 25 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript is a signed fair copy of three verses from numbered section 6 of the 1881 Leaves of Grass version of a poem published under the title "Thou Mother with Thy Equal Brood" ; his note "Leaves of Grass/ page 350," corresponding to the pagination of the 1881 edition, appears beneath the lines. Whitman seems to have prepared this copy for an admirer, with his signature appearing in huge letters above the lines "Camden New Jersey / April 19 1886—."

Boxes: MSS3829 Box 2
Folder: [The Time and Lands]
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00113
Title:  "[The Time and Lands]"
Date: about 1872
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 18.5 x 18.5 cm to 20 x 18 cm, handwritten
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The first two entries on Leaf 1 appear to contain general notes for a poem; the second entry reads, "Make a demand for the Ideal, (or rather idea of the Ideal of the real)." The lines are followed by the note "in the piece," which leads up to several trial verses eventually incorporated in the second verse paragraph of numbered section 5 of "Thou Mother With Thy Equal Brood." The accompanying leaf contains general notes about creating a song or chant to celebrate America and her "best men." A cartoon hand singles out the lines "All the states / East & west, / north & south / Brotherhood / an equal union" which prefigure the whole poem, but particularly such lines as "South, North, West, East, / (To thy immortal breasts, Mother of All, thy every daughter, / son, endear'd alike, forever equal,)" in the same section projected on Leaf 1. The poem "Thou Mother With Thy Equal Brood" was composed with the title "As a Strong Bird on Pinions Free" and presented as the Dartmouth commencement poem on June 26, 1872. The poem was first published in a volume of the same name with seven other poems also in 1872.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00179
Title:  "Premonition"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 33 leaves
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Thirty-three manuscript leaves numbered consecutively by Whitman in the lower left corner. "Premonition" was published as the introductory poem to the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass under the title "Proto-Leaf." In the 1867 and later editions it appeared directly after the opening poem "Inscription" as "Starting from Paumanok." On the verso of leaf 15 and part of leaf 16 appears a draft of what would become section 11 of "Calamus" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 2, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00180
Title:  "Leaves-Droppings"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 16 x 10 cm, handwritten
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After being incorporated as the first main section of "Enfans d'Adam" in 1860, this poem received its own title, "To the Garden, the World" in the 1867 Leaves of Grass and retained its position in the "Children of Adam" group.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 2, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00181
Title:  "You and I"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 3 leaves, all leaves 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 84, this poem appeared in the 1860 Leaves of Grass as main section 7 of "Enfans d'Adam," and was retitled within the group "We Two—How Long We Were Fool'd" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 2, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00182
Title:  "[Now the hour has come upon me]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 18.5 x 16 cm, leaf 2 11 x 16 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4 
This poem, numbered 82 in pencil, became main section 8 of "Enfans d'Adam" in 1860, and was permanently retitled within the group "Native Moments" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 2, Page 4
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00183
Title:  "[Once I passed through a populous]" "I am the child of Democracy"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The recto verses appearing on this manuscript became the main section 9 of "Enfans d'Adam" in 1860 and were retitled "Once I Pass'd Through a Populous City" in 1867. On the verso appear two fragments: an undeleted verse that would be used in Satan's section of "Chanting the Square Deific" in "Sequel to Drum-Taps" (1865-66); and what would become section 23 of "Proto-Leaf" , which becomes "Starting from Paumanok" in 1867. The undeleted verse is upside-down relative to the deleted section.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 2, Page 5
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00184
Title:  "Hindustan"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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The number 80 appears above the deleted 79 above the title, along with a pencil question mark in parentheses. This poem was revised to form main section 10 of "Enfans d'Adam" in 1860, and in 1867 was given two new opening lines and retitled "Facing West from California's Shores."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00244
Title:  "Calamus—1st draft p. 341 [Long I was held]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 16 x 10 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript became section 1 of "Calamus" in 1860, and was retitled "In Paths Untrodden" in the 1867 Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00246
Title:  "[Was it I who walked the]" "Scented Herbage of My Breast"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf that folds out, 21.5 x 16 cm, handwritten
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These leaves comprise two sections of a poem inscribed (with very few alterations) on the first and third sides of a folded half-sheet of paper. On the first side of the folded leaf a blue pencil was used to correct a pencil number 7 to a 1, and on the third side the blue pencil corrected a pencil 8 to a 2. The five verses beginning "Was it I who walked the / earth..." were not used in "Calamus," but the five lines beginning "Scented herbage of my breast" became the opening verses of section 2 of the cluster in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. In the 1867 and later editions the first line was used as the title of the poem.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00243
Title:  "[I do not know whether]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 5 leaves, 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
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The verses on the recto became lines 6-40 of section 2 of "Calamus" in the 1860 edition. Section 2 of the Calamus group was permanently retitled "Scented Herbage of my Breast" in 1867. On the verso appears a draft of an editorial, "Important Questions in Brooklyn.—," which Whitman apparently never published but which seems to have inspired at least two published editorials on the Brooklyn Water Works and the political quarrels surrounding control of the project. The editorials appeared in the Brooklyn Times of March 15 and 16, 1859.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00330
Title:  "[These I, singing in spring]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 4 leaves, 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
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These leaves comprise four sections of a poem inscribed on the first and third sides of two folded half-sheets (20 x 16 cm) of the same white wove paper used for 1:3:1 and 1:3:2, in the same light brown ink and, like them, with only minor revisions. The pages were folded and pinned together to form a small pamphlet. Pinholes mostly at center-top and in what was the left margin of the pamphlet. The lines on page 1 became verses 1-8 of section 4 of "Calamus." in 1860; page 2 ("Solitary, smelling the earthy/ smell,...") became verses 9-14; page 3 ("Here lilac with a branch of/ pine,") became verses 15-22; and page 4 ("And stems of currants, and/ plum-blows,") became verses 23-28. From 1867 on the poem was titled "These I, Singing in Spring."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 9
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00322
Title:  "[Of the doubts]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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On two light blue Williamsburgh tax blanks (21.5 x 12 cm), in light brown ink, with minor revisions. A few pinholes at the head and in the center. A blue pencil question mark appears to the left of the first line on the second form. The lines on the first leaf became verses 1-9 of section 7 of "Calamus" in 1860, and the second leaf's lines ("To me all these, and the/ like of these,..."] became verses 10-16. Retitled "Of the Terrible Doubt of Appearances" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 10
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00321
Title:  "[Long I thought that knowledge]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 3 leaves, leaves 1 and 2 15 x 9.5 cm; leaf 3 6.5 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
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On three pieces of white wove paper (the first two 15 x 9.5 cm, the third 6.5 x 9.5 cm), in black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in pencil. Whitman also penciled in the numbers 7, 8, and 8 1/2 in the lower-left corner of each page. Pinholes at the head and in the center of each page. This was the fifth poem of the original sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" ; the poem number is inscribed ornamentally, as with the Roman numerals Whitman used for other "Live Oak" poems, and a wavy line appears after the last verse. The lines on the first leaf became verses 1-5 of section 8 of "Calamus" in 1860; the second leaf's lines ("Take notice, you Kanuck woods") became verses 6-10; and the lines on the half-page ("I am indifferent to my own/ songs—") became verses 11-12. There were no further appearances of this poem during the poet's lifetime, Whitman having canceled it in his "Blue Book Copy" of the 1860 Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 11
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00314
Title:  "[Hours continuing long]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 9.5 x 9 cm; leaf 2 14.5 x 9 cm pasted to 5 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4 
On two pieces of white wove paper, the first cut down to 9.5 x 9 cm and the second comprising two sections (14.5 x 9 and 5 x 9.5 cm) joined by means of a strip of pink paper. In brown-black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in pencil. Pinholes mostly at top and in center of leaves. Whitman penciled in the numbers 11 and 12 (apparently over other numbers) in the lower-left corner of each page; his partly erased pencil note "(finished in/ the other city)" appears on the first page. The ornamental number "VIII" replaces a deleted ornamental "IX" on the first page, and the top of another "IX" appears at the foot of the second page, beneath a wavy line indicating the end of the poem. Whitman removed the lower section of page 2 from the top of current leaf 1:3:33 ("I dreamed in a dream of a/ city..."). This poem, the eighth in the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss," became section 9 of "Calamus" in 1860. This was its only appearance in Leaves. The first page contains what would become verses 1-3 in 1860, and the second ("Hours discouraged, distracted,") contains lines 4-12.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 12
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00340
Title:  "[You bards of ages hence]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 8 x 9 cm; leaf 2 14.5 x 9.5 cm pasted to 5.5 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
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On two sections of white wove paper, the first cut down to 8 x 9 cm and the second a composite of two pieces pasted together, the top measuring 14.5 x 9.5 and the bottom 5.5 x 9.5 cm. In black ink, with a few revisions in the same ink. Pinholes at top and in center of both pages. Whitman numbered the first 9 1/2 and the second 10, in pencil, in the lower-left corner of each leaf. The Roman numeral is inscribed in an ornamental style, and the poem terminates with a wavy line. The seventh poem in the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss," became section 10 of "Calamus" in 1860 and was permanently retitled "Recorders Ages Hence" in 1867. The lines on the first page correspond to verses 1-3 of the 1860 version, and those on the second page ("Publish my name and hang up/ my picture...") to lines 4-11.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 13
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00339
Title:  "[When I heard at the close of]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 15 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
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On two leaves of white wove paper, both measuring 15 x 9.5 cm; the lower half of the second page is pasted over with a section of white paper (8 x 9 cm) containing four revised verses. In black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in pencil. Pinholes mostly at top of both pages. Whitman numbered the pages 4 and 5, in pencil, in their lower-left corners. The third section of "Live Oak, with Moss" (with ornamental Roman numeral), this poem became section 11 of "Calamus" in 1860 and was permanently retitled "When I Heard at the Close of the Day" in 1867. For an earlier draft of the poem numbered V please see the verso of leaves 15-16 of "Premonition" (1:1:15-16). Bowers (p. 88) supplies the three earlier lines concealed by the paste-on revision to the second leaf. The lines on the first page correspond to verses 1-5 of the 1860 version, and those on the second page ("And when I thought how/ my friend,...") to lines 6-13.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 14
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00332
Title:  "To a new personal admirer"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 13 x 11.5 cm; leaf 2 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
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On two pieces of white wove paper, 13 x 11.5 and 20 x 16 cm, in brown-black ink, with substantial revisions in the same ink. Pinholes mostly at center and in left margins of both pages. This poem, featuring a new first line, became section 12 of "Calamus" in 1860; in 1867 Whitman dropped the last 2 1/2 lines and permanently retitled it "Are you the New Person Drawn Toward Me?" The first page contains verses corresponding to lines 2-3 of the 1860 version, and the lines on the second page ("Do you suppose you can easily/ be my lover,...") became verses 4-11.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 15
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00308
Title:  "Buds"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On pink leaf (21.5 x 13 cm), in black ink, with minor revisions in the same ink.A few pinholes at top and near center. A pencil question mark appears in parentheses in the upper-right corner. The number 52 appears to have been revised from 51. After adding several verses, Whitman designated this poem section 13 of "Calamus" in the 1860 Leaves, and, after dropping the first two and last three lines of the 1860 version, permanently retitled it "Roots and Leaves Themselves Alone" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 16
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00310
Title:  "Calamus-Leaves"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15 x 9 cm, handwritten
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On white wove leaf, 15 x 9 cm, in black ink, with the title "Live Oak, with Moss" stricken out and "Calamus-Leaves" added in light brown ink, and with one small revision in blue pencil. Whitman numbered this page 1 in pencil. The first section of the original sequence "Live Oak, with Moss," this became section 14 of "Calamus" in 1860 and was permanently retitled "Not Heat Flames up and Consumes" in the 1867 Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 17
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00311
Title:  "Confession-Drops"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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Written on a light blue Williamsburgh tax blank, this poem became section 15 of "Calamus" in 1860, and, with the addition of a new first line, was retitled "Trickle, Drops" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 18
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00317
Title:  "43—Leaf"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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The original title was "Leaflet." On the second page Whitman added, in a combination of normal and blue pencil, the number 43 (1/2). With the addition of a new first line ("1. Who is now reading this?") the poem became section 16 of "Calamus" in 1860; the lines on the first draft page correspond to verses 2-8 and those on the second page ("Or as if interior in me") to verses 9-10. This was the first and last appearance of the poem during Whitman's lifetime: he rejected it from his "Blue Book Copy" of Leaves of Grass in 1860.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 19
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00325
Title:  "Poemet"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On two pink leaves (21 x 13 cm), in black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in light ink. Pinholes in center, at top, and in top-left corner. This poem was originally titled "Leaf" and apparently numbered 78; Whitman inscribed its new title, "Poemet," in light ink. It became section 17 of "Calamus" in 1860, with the lines on the first leaf corresponding to verses 1-7 and those on the second ("And what I dreamed I will/ henceforth tell...") to verses 8-13 of the first published version. Retitled "Of Him I Love Day and Night" in 1867, it was transferred to the "Whispers of Heavenly Death" cluster in Passage to India in 1871. In 1881 Whitman incorporated it, with the rest of the cluster, in the main body of Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 20
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00023
Title:  "[City of my walks and joys]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8.5 x 10 cm pasted to 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On a composite leaf consisting of two pieces of white wove paper. The smaller section is pasted over some lines in the top-left corner of the larger piece, from the top of which other lines were cut off. On the verso of the larger piece appears an extensively revised pencil draft of the first poem in "Enfans d'Adam" . The group first appeard in print in 1860 with this poem as section 1. The poem was permanently titled "To the Garden of the World" in 1867. The verses on the current recto of the composite leaf became section 18 of "Calamus" in 1860; the poem was permanently titled "City of Orgies" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 21
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00316
Title:  "[I saw in Louisiana a]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 15 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
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On two leaves of white wove paper, both 15 x 9.5 cm, in black ink, with extensive revisions in the same ink, in light brown ink, and in pencil. Pinholes mostly at top and in center of both pages. Whitman numbered the pages 2 and 3 in pencil. This was originally the second section of the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" (one of the deleted lines reads "I write/ these pieces, and name/ them after it [the Louisiana live-oak];"), with ornamental Roman numeral. It became section 20 of "Calamus" in 1860; the lines on the first manuscript page correspond to verses 1-7, and those on the second ("It is not needed to remind/ me...") to verses 8-13. The poem was retitled "I saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 22
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00307
Title:  "As of Eternity"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On two leaves of pink paper, both 21 x 13 cm, in black ink, with minor revisions in the same ink. Pinholes mostly in center and at top of both pages. This poem became section 21 of "Calamus" in 1860; the lines on the first manuscript page became verses 1-6, and those on the second ("I hear not the volumes of/ sound merely—...") became 7-9. Retitled "That Music Always Round Me" in 1867, it was transferred in 1871 to the "Whispers of Heavenly Death" cluster in Passage to India. In 1881 Whitman incorporated it, with the rest of the cluster, in the main body of Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 23
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00334
Title:  "To A Stranger"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On two leaves of pink paper, both 21 x 13 cm, in black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in light ink. Pinholes mostly in center and in left margin of each page. This poem was first numbered 94, and the first word was "Stranger"; Whitman penciled in a question mark, in parentheses, next to the title. It was numbered section 22 of "Calamus" in 1860: the lines on the first page correspond to verses 1-6 of the 1860 version, and those on the second ("You give me the pleasure") to verses 7-10. Whitman reintroduced the title "To a Stranger" in the 1867 Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Pag 24
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00331
Title:  "[This moment as I sit alone]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of white wove paper, in dark brown ink, with revisions in pencil. Pinholes in center and at top. Whitman penciled in the number 6 in the lower-left corner. The fourth poem in the original sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" (with ornamental Roman numeral), it became section 23 of "Calamus" in 1860 and was permanently retitled "This Moment, Yearning and Thoughtful" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 25
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00326
Title:  "Prairie-Grass"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of pink paper (21 x 13 cm), in black ink, with revisions in an even blacker ink and in pencil. Pinholes in center. The poem was originally numbered 53. In 1860 Whitman designated it section 25 of "Calamus," transforming the title into a new first line and expanding the original first line into verses 2-4. In 1867 he further revised it, permanently retitling it "The Prairie-Grass Dividing."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 27
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00319
Title:  "Leaf [O dying! Always dying!]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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On one light blue Williamsburgh tax blank (21.5 x 12 cm), in dark brown ink, with revisions in fine pen and pencil. Whitman penciled in a question mark, in parentheses, next to the title. With the addition of the new first line "O love!" this became section 27 of "Calamus" in 1860. In the 1867 Leaves it was retitled "O Living Always—Always Dying!" Whitman next transferred it to the "Passage to India" supplement bound in with Leaves, where it reappeared in 1876; in the 1881 Leaves Whitman permanently added it to the cluster "Whispers of Heavenly Death."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 28
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00318
Title:  "Leaf [A promise to Indiana]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 22 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of pink paper (22 x 13 cm), in black ink, with revisions in the same ink. Pinholes mostly in center. The original title was "Leaflet," and the original number seems to have been 70. After substantial revision (including the addition of the new first line "A promise and gift to California,") this poem became section 30 of "Calamus" in 1860. Whitman further revised the poem before including it, permanently retitled "A Promise to California," in the 1867 Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 29
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00320
Title:  "Leaf [What place is besieged]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of pink paper (21.5 x 13 cm), in black ink, with a fair copy of the poem at the bottom of the leaf and a deleted draft featuring heavy revisions in the same ink and in pencil at the top. This poem was originally numbered 68, and its title was "Leaflet—." In 1860 it became the second numbered verse paragraph of section 31 of "Calamus." In 1867 Whitman split up the two paragraphs and made them separate poems; these verses were moved to a position between the "Calamus" and a "Leaves of Grass" cluster and permanently retitled "What Place Is Besieged?" In 1881 the poem was transferred to the cluster "Inscriptions."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 30
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00313
Title:  "[Here the frailest leaves of me]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of white wove paper (15 x 9.5 cm), in medium-brown ink, with one revision in the same ink. Pinholes mostly at top and in center. The two sets of verses are divided by a short horizontal line. In 1860 the first set, with the addition of a new first line ("Here my last words, and the most baffling,") became section 44 of "Calamus" ; the poem was permanently retitled "Here the Frailest Leaves of Me" , and the new first line dropped, in 1867. The second set was revised to form section 38 of "Calamus" in 1860; in 1867 it was further revised and retitled "Fast Anchor'd, Eternal, O Love."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 31
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00306
Title:  "[A leaf for hand-in-hand]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14.5 x 9 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of white wove paper (14.5 x 9 cm), in black ink, with revisions in pencil. Pinholes in center and at top. A blue-pencil number 3 appears in the upper right corner over an erased 9. With substantial additions and revisions this evolved into section 37 of "Calamus" in 1860; after further revision it became "A Leaf for Hand in Hand" in 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 32
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00312
Title:  "[Earth]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14.5 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On one leaf of white wove paper (14.5 x 9.5 cm), in brown-black ink, with revisions in lighter ink (including the deletion, undone in 1860, of the phrase "My likeness!" after "Earth!"). Pinholes mostly at top and in center. Whitman penciled in the number 15 in the lower-left corner. Originally poem XI in the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" (with the Roman numeral ornamentally drawn), this was revised to become section 36 of "Calamus" in 1860. In 1867 Whitman retitled the poem "Earth! My Likeness!"

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 33
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00315
Title:  "[I dreamed in a dream of a]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9.5 x 9 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On one leaf of white wove paper cut down to 9.5 x 9 cm, in brown-black ink, with revisions in pencil. Pinholes at top and in center. Whitman numbered the leaf 13, in pencil, in the lower-left corner. The excised top portion of the leaf became the bottom section of page 2 of 1:3:11, the poem (eighth in the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" ) beginning "Hours continuing long, sore/ and heavy-hearted..." In 1860 this poem was substantially revised to form section 34 of "Calamus" ; in 1867 it was retitled "I Dreamed in a Dream."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 34
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00338
Title:  "[What think you I have]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8.5 x 9 cm pasted to 6.5 x 9 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On a composite leaf of white wove paper consisting of two sections (8.5 x 9 and 6.5 x 9 cm) pasted together. Both sections are in black ink but, as Bowers notes, the lower verses were inscribed using a darker, thicker pen; the upper section is unrevised, but the lower section bears several alterations in the original ink. Pinholes at top of both sections and in the current center. Whitman numbered the page 9, in pencil, in the lower-left corner. Originally the sixth section of the sequence "Live Oak, with Moss," this poem was revised to form section 32 of "Calamus" in 1860, and in 1867 was retitled "What Think You I Take My Pen in Hand?"

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 35
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00328
Title:  "[Sometimes]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On one leaf of white wove paper (15 x 9.5 cm), in light brown ink, with one revision in the same ink. Pinholes at top and in center. A blue pencil mark, possibly the number 4, has been inscribed in the upper right corner. Bowers notes that the page bears the imprint of a papermaker's lozenge die, perhaps that of Platner and Smith of Lee, Massachusetts. This poem became section 39 of "Calamus" in 1860; in 1867 Whitman replaced the third line with a new one and permanently retitled the poem "Sometimes with One I Love."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 36
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00337
Title:  "[To the young man]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15 x 9 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On one leaf of white wove paper (15 x 9 cm), in black ink, with revisions in the same ink and in pencil. Whitman also penciled in the page number 16 in the lower-left corner. Pinholes in center and at top. This page bears the same papermaker's mark as 1:3:35. Twelfth in the original sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" (with ornamental Roman numeral), it became section 42 of "Calamus" in 1860. In 1867 Whitman changed the poem to an apostrophe, adding the first line "O Boy of the West!" (later removed) and permanently retitling it "To a Western Boy."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 37
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00336
Title:  "To One Who Will Understand"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On one leaf of pink paper (21.5 x 13 cm), in black ink, with revisions in the same ink, in pencil, and in fine ink (in that order). Pinholes mostly in center. Originally titled "To Those Who Will Understand" and numbered 100 (then 101, then the current ?100 in the fine pen). This was revised to form section 41 of "Calamus" in 1860 and was permanently retitled "Among the Multitude" in the 1867 Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 38
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00324
Title:  "[O you whom I often and silently come where you are]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14.5 x 9 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
On one leaf of white wove paper (14.5 x 9 cm), in brown-black ink, with revisions in the same ink. Pinholes mostly at the top, with a few lower down. The tenth section of the original sequence "Live Oak, with Moss" (with ornamental Roman numeral), this was reformatted and renumbered but otherwise left unrevised as section 43 of "Calamus" in 1860. In 1867 Whitman permanently retitled it "O You Whom I Often and Silently Come."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 39
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00329
Title:  "[That shadow]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 17 x 9.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
One one leaf of lined light blue wove paper (17 x 9.5 cm), in pencil, with one pencil revision. Only two sets of pinholes, both in center. This was revised to become section 40 of "Calamus" in 1860; in 1867 it was retitled "That Shadow, My Likeness."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 3, Page 40
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00335
Title:  "To one a century hence, or any number of centuries hence"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10 x 13 cm pasted to 11.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On one composite leaf of pink paper formed of two sections (10 x 13 and 11.5 x 13 cm) of the same page cut apart and pasted together in a new order. The poem number was originally 101 and then changed to 102; this number was deleted and the current ?101 added in fine pen. Bowers explains that the poem, in two discrete verse sections and inscribed in black ink (with title), originally occupied one full side of this leaf. When Whitman wanted to expand the first section without having to retranscribe the second one, he simply cut the two sections apart, flipped the first section over (turning it upside-down in the process), pasted the second section to the lower edge of the verso of the first section, and wrote his new first section (beginning "Throwing far, throwing over the head/ of death" and incorporating the original title as verse 3) in the blank space now created above the second section. The new first section is written and revised in light ink. As Bradley and Blodgett observe, the words "thirty-eight years old the/ eighty-first year of The States" indicate that Whitman composed the poem in 1857; these were revised to read "I, forty years old the Eighty-third Year of The States" in the 1860 Leaves, in which this poem constituted section 45 of "Calamus." In 1867 Whitman retitled the poem "Full of Life, Now."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 1
Folder: 4, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00185
Title:  "Feuillage"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 16 leaves, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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This poem was originally numbered 89. Whitman also numbered each leaf in the lower-left corner in pencil: the leaves follow the order 1-9, 9 1/2 (a full page despite its number), and 10-15. The expression "the Eightieth year of / These States" at the top of leaf 2 indicates that Whitman was working on this poem as early as 1856. It became section 4 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860. In 1867 Whitman ungrouped it and retitled the poem "American Feuillage," a name it kept until being permanently retitled "Our Old Feuillage" in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00187
Title:  "Evolutions"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 6 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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On six leaves of pink paper. The deleted title is "Poemet—." "Evolutions.—" is written in light ink, and the number "41—" in a darker ink than the text. Whitman numbered each leaf in pencil in the upper right corner. This poem was first published in the January 14, 1860 issue of the New York Saturday Press under the title "You and Me and To-day," after which it became section 7 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. In 1867 Whitman ungrouped it and permanently retitled it "With Antecedents" ; in 1881 it was permanently transferred to the new cluster "Birds of Passage." The manuscript leaves correspond to the published verses in the 1860 Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00188
Title:  "A Sunset Carol"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 6 leaves, leaf 1 25.5 x 12.5 cm, leaves 2-6 21.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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Whitman numbered each of the six leaves, in pencil, in the upper right corner. In the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass Whitman published this poem as section 8 of "Chants Democratic." In 1867, he gave it the permanent title "Song at Sunset" and moved it to the supplement "Songs Before Parting" ; in 1871 it was finally transferred to the cluster "Songs of Parting" within the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00189
Title:  "Thought [Of these years I sing]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 21.5 x 13 cm, leaf 2 18.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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Whitman inscribed and circled the note "2d/ piece/ in Book" in the upper-right corner of the first leaf. The small top section is inscribed on the verso of some deleted draft verses excised from "So Long!" . "Thought" became section 9 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860. In the 1867 Leaves of Grass Whitman combined it with the second "Thought" to form the poem "Thoughts" in the supplement "Songs Before Parting." (This particular "Thought" was numbered section 1 of the composite poem.) In 1871 "Thoughts" appeared in the cluster "Songs of Parting" within the main body of Leaves of Grass, and in 1881, it achieved its final position within that cluster. These leaves correspond to the verses in the 1860 "Chants Democratic" version.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 4
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00190
Title:  "Thought [Of closing up my songs by these]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, leaf 1 9 x 12.5 cm pasted to 17.5 x 13.5 cm, leaf 2 21 x 13.5 cm, handwritten
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The paste-on revision contains an expanded version of the original lines Whitman cut away and apparently discarded. The verso of the paste-on section contains, five undeleted draft lines that would become the final verses of "Proto-Leaf" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass; Whitman's small note in the lower-right corner, in a semi-circle, reads "end of Poem." These "Thought" lines became section 11 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860. In the 1867 Leaves of Grass Whitman combined it with the second "Thought" to form the poem "Thoughts" in the supplement "Songs Before Parting." In 1871 "Thoughts" appeared in the cluster "Songs of Parting" within the main body of Leaves of Grass, and in 1881, it achieved its final position within that cluster.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 5
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00191
Title:  "To a Historian"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 20 x 16 cm pasted to 11 x 16 cm, handwritten
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After undergoing extensive revisions, in 1860 "To a Historian" became section 10 of "Chants Democratic." In 1867 Whitman deleted five verses, transferred the poem to the supplement "Songs Before Parting," and permanently retitled it "To a Historian." It appeared as the fifth poem in the opening cluster "Inscriptions" in the 1872 and all later editions. On the verso appear fragments of pencil notes for a speech or essay Whitman wrote (most likely) in 1856, and revised in 1858, under the working title "Slavery—the Slaveholders—/ —The Constitution—the true America and Americans, the laboring persons—." The verso of another manuscript in this collection entitled "To a Cantatrice.—" contains an additional fragment of these notes.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 6
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00193
Title:  "Orators"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 5 leaves, 22 x 13.5 cm, handwritten
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The poem was originally numbered 67, and the partly erased pencil note "Needs to be/ re-written/ or excluded" appears in the upper-right corner of the first leaf. Whitman also numbered the leaves in pencil in their lower-left corners. The leaves correspond to verses in section 12 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. After excising and altering numerous verses of the poem and numbering different verse paragraphs for the "Chants Democratic" version, Whitman next made the poem the second numbered section of the last "Leaves of Grass" cluster in the 1867 edition. From 1872 to 1876 it bore the title "To Oratists." Then, in 1881, Whitman deleted several lines, joining this poem with a previously unconnected poem known as "Voices" to form "Vocalism" in the cluster "Autumn Rivulets," a position and identity the now-composite poem retained from that point on.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 7
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00195
Title:  "American Laws"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 3 leaves, leaf 1 19.5 x 12.5 cm, leaves 2-3 21.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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A partial horizontal line at the top of the first leaf indicates that Whitman cut away the original title and number. Whitman numbered each leaf in pencil in the lower left corner. These pages were transformed into section 13 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. In 1867 it was greatly shortened and transferred to the final "Leaves of Grass" cluster. In 1872 the poem was permanently retitled "Laws for Creations" Its final position was in the cluster "Autumn Rivulets" .

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass,Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00196
Title:  "To Poets to Come"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 20 x 16 cm, handwritten
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Whitman numbered the inscribed sides of the folded leaf, in pencil, in the upper right corners. Side 1 corresponds to verses 1-9 of section 14 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass; side 2 ("I expect that Kanadians,") became verses 10-16 of that version. In 1867 it was shortened to make up section 4 of the final "Leaves of Grass" cluster. In 1872 it was permanently retitled "Poets to Come" and transferred to the cluster "The Answerer," where it stayed until being moved to the "Inscriptions" cluster in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 9
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00197
Title:  "Mediums"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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This manuscript draft became section 16 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860, with Leaf 1 corresponding to verses 1-6 and Leaf 2 ("They shall train themselves/ to go in public,...") to verses 7-11. In 1867 Whitman restored the title "Mediums" ; in 1871, the poem was transferred to Passage to India, and in 1881 took its final position in the cluster "From Noon to Starry Night."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 10
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00198
Title:  "Wander-Teachers"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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The poem was originally numbered 50. Whitman penciled in a question mark, in parentheses, in the upper-right corner. This became section 17 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass, with leaf 1 corresponding to verses 1-6 and leaf 2 ("We confer on equal terms with / each of The States,") to verses 7-13. Although he dropped it from Leaves of Grass in 1867, Whitman nonetheless used the poem, permanently retitled "On Journeys through the States," in Passage to India in 1871. In 1872 and 1876 it appeared in the "Passage to India" annexes to Leaves of Grass and Two Rivulets, respectively, and in the 1881 edition it took its final position in the cluster "Inscriptions."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 11
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00199
Title:  "Leaf [Me imperturbe!]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 73. This poem became section 18 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860; in 1867 it was permanently retitled "Me Imperturbe," and after various repositionings, was finally transferred to the cluster "Inscriptions" in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 12
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00200
Title:  "Leaf [I was looking a long while]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 75; the pencil title "Leaflet" appears, deleted, in the upper-right corner. This poem became section 19 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860; in 1867 it was permanently retitled "I Was Looking a Long While," and in 1881 was assigned to the cluster "Autumn Rivulets."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 1, Page 13
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00201
Title:  "Mouth-Songs"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 54 and titled "Leaf.—" . The title was next "Songs—always wanted" and then "Mouth-Songs." This poem became section 20 of "Chants Democratic" in 1860, with leaf 1 corresponding to verses 1-6 and leaf 2 ("The delicious singing of the/ mother...") to verses 8-10. In 1867 Whitman revised the first line and permanently retitled the poem "I Hear America Singing" ; in 1881 it achieved its final position in the cluster "Inscriptions."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00202
Title:  "Confession and Warning"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 3 leaves, 21.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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After undergoing substantial deletions and revisions this poem became section 13 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in 1860, with the manuscript leaves corresponding to the published version as follows: leaf 1 to numbered verse paragraphs 1 (now beginning "O bitter sprig! Confession sprig!") through 3 and 5; leaf 2 ("You felons on trial in courts,") to 4 and most of 6; and leaf 3 ("And I say I am of them—") to the rest of 6. In 1867 Whitman permanently retitled the poem "You Felons on Trial in Courts" and further shortened it by removing the first three verse paragraphs. The poem's final position, in 1881, was in the cluster "Autumn Rivulets."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00203
Title:  "Night on the Prairies"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 3 leaves, 20 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Whitman cut off and flipped over the top section of the first leaf, gluing it to the rest of the leaf, in order to transform the original first line into the title. (The current verso of the top section still bears, undeleted, the first line "Night on the prairies[,]" along with the title "Leaf.—" and the number 73, originally 72). Whitman deleted the pencil numbers 16, 17, and 18 in the lower-left corner of the leaves, substituting the numbers 1 through 3. This poem became section 15 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in 1860. In 1867 Whitman restored the title "Night on the Prairies" and revised the poem, transferring it to the "Leaves of Grass" group. After other repositionings it achieved its current place in the cluster "Whispers of Heavenly Death" in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00204
Title:  "Leaf [Sea-water, and all breathing]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 22 x 13 cm, handwritten
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The poem was originally numbered 71 and then modified to 72. These 2 leaves contain verses first published in section 16 of the 1860 Leaves of Grass cluster. In 1867 Whitman transferred this poem to a different "Leaves of Grass" group with the poems that would become "Night on the Prairies" and "I Sit and Look Out." After receiving the title "The World Below the Brine" in the 1871 "Sea-Shore Memories" group of Passage to India, the final change was its transfer to the cluster "Sea Drift" within the main body of Leaves of Grass in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 4
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00205
Title:  "Leaf [I sit and look out upon all]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 77 and then changed to 78. This became section 17 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 Leaves. After taking different positions in both the 1867 and 1872, it took its final place in 1881 in the cluster "By the Roadside."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 5
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00206
Title:  "As of the The Truth"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 4 leaves, leaf 2 19.5 x 13 cm, all other leaves 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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This poem became section 18 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 edition. In 1872 the poem received the title "All is Truth," and in 1881, after various repositionings, it was finally transferred to the cluster "From Noon to Starry Night" . The second leaf is a composite formed when Whitman deleted and cut away the original first two verses on the leaf, flipped the new small section over and upside-down, pasted it to the foot of the remaining original verses, and inscribed a verse in light ink on the newly created blank space.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 6
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00208
Title:  "As of Origins"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, three pasted sections of 6.5 x 13 cm, 8 x 13 cm, and 12.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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This poem became section 19 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 edition. In 1867 Whitman moved it to a different "Leaves of Grass" group in the "Songs Before Parting" annex. In 1872 it was retitled "Germs" and was ultimately transferred, in 1881, to the cluster "By the Roadside."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 7
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00209
Title:  "Voices"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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This poem became section 21 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 edition. In 1867 Whitman placed it after what would eventually become "All is Truth" and "Germs" as section 3 of a "Leaves of Grass" group in the annex "Songs Before Parting." In 1872 Whitman restored the title "Voices." In 1881 he dropped the first two verses and added "Voices" (as verse paragraph 2) to the previously unrelated poem "To Oratists" to form "Vocalism" in the cluster "Autumn Rivulets" .

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 2, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00210
Title:  "Leaf [What am I after all but a]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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This poem became section 22 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 edition. In 1867 Whitman dropped the second 1860 verse and made it section 4 of a "Leaves of Grass" group in the annex "Songs Before Parting" . Whitman gave it the title "What Am I After All" in Passage to India (1871), and in 1881 it was finally transferred to the cluster "Autumn Rivulets."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00211
Title:  "To One Shortly To Die"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 95 and then changed to 96. This poem was published under the title "To One Shortly to Die" , with only minor revisions, in the 1860 "Messenger Leaves" cluster. In 1871, Whitman made small but significant additions to the poem and transferred it to the supplement "Passage to India." In 1881 it was finally moved to the cluster "Whispers of Heavenly Death."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00212
Title:  "To Rich Givers"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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"To Rich Givers—" was originally numbered 98. In 1860 it formed part of the "Messenger Leaves" cluster under the same title. After being ungrouped (1867) and transferred to the cluster "Songs of Parting" (1872 and 1876), it finally appeared, in 1881, in the cluster "By the Roadside." The deleted verses on the back of the leaf represent an earlier version of the manuscript poem "To the Future," never published by Whitman, and currently housed in the Huntington Library.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00213
Title:  "To a Pupil"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 12 cm, handwritten
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The manuscript bears the title "To a Pupil" ; however, the original title seems to have been cut away. This poem was revised somewhat and published under the same title in the "Messenger Leaves" cluster of the 1860 Leaves of Grass. It was ungrouped in 1867, transferred to a "Leaves of Grass" group within the "Passage to India" supplement in 1872 (also 1876), and finally moved to the cluster "Autumn Rivulets" within Leaves of Grass in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 4
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00214
Title:  "A Past Presidentiad, and one to come also"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Whitman wrote and deleted the date 1858 in blue pencil in the upper right corner of the first leaf, and inscribed the same date in normal pencil in the lower left corner of the second leaf. This poem became "To The States, To Identify the 16th, 17th, or 18th Presidentiad" in the cluster "Messenger Leaves" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. Ungrouped in 1867, it was transferred in 1872 to a "Leaves of Grass" group within the main body. In 1881 it was finally transferred to the cluster "By the Roadside" .

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 5
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00215
Title:  "To a Cantatrice"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9 x 16 cm, handwritten
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This poem was first titled "To an artist," then "To an architect" ; the smudged-out words "Lecture[s] / To" appear in light ink in the upper-left corner. These lines were revised and published under the title "To a Cantatrice" in the "Messenger Leaves" cluster of 1860. After being ungrouped and permanently retitled "To A Certain Cantatrice" in 1867, it was revised for inclusion in the cluster "Songs of Insurrection" in the 1872 and 1876 Leaves of Grass. In 1881 it was finally transferred to the cluster "Inscriptions" . On one section of the same leaf of white ruled laid paper used for "To a Historian," and with another fragment of the same pencil draft of the speech or essay "Slavery—the Slaveholders—/ —The Constitution—the/ true America and Ameri-/ cans, the laboring persons.—" on verso.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 3, Page 6
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00216
Title:  "To You"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9 x 12.5 pasted to 20 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Beneath the pasted-over section can be discerned a second title, also "To You," with the number 91 (mended from 90). In the 1860 Leaves of Grass Whitman divided the poems again, publishing them in reverse order under the same titles at the end of the cluster "Messenger Leaves." Section 1 was eventually published (1881) as one of the poems in the cluster "Inscriptions," but Whitman dropped section 2 from his published poems after an 1876 appearance in the supplement "Passage to India."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 1
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00217
Title:  "Mannahatta"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 5 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 56 and revised by overwriting to 57; Whitman numbered each leaf in pencil in the lower-left corner from 1 to 5. The leaves correspond to various verses in the 1860 edition. In the 1872 Leaves of Grass the poem was transferred to a "Leaves of Grass" group, and in 1881 took its final position in the cluster "From Noon to Starry Night."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 2
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00218
Title:  "Poem of Joys"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 20 leaves, 14.5 x 13 cm to 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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These twenty leaves, numbered by a collector, relate to "Poem of Joys," first published in the 1860 Leaves of Grass. The title became "Poems of Joy" in 1867, but reverted to the original title in its next two iterations (in the "Passage to India" supplement of 1872 and 1876). In 1881 it was finally titled "A Song of Joys" and left independent of any cluster.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 3
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00221
Title:  "France, the 18th Year of These States"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 5 leaves, 21 x 13 cm to 22.5 x 13.5 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 86 and revised by overwriting to 87; Whitman also numbered the leaves 1-5 (in pencil, lower left corner), with the 1 replacing a 6 and the 2 written over what looks like a 7. The leaves correspond to various verses in the 1860 published version "France, The 18th Year of These States" . Although Whitman never changed the title, and did not revise the poem much, he did transfer it twice, grouping it in the cluster "Songs of Insurrection" within the main body of Leaves of Grass in 1871 and 1876, and in 1881 finally transferring it to the new cluster "Birds of Passage" within Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 4
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00222
Title:  "Unnamed Lands"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 5 leaves, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 81 and revised by overwriting to 82, with the note "?/(Leaf of)" above the number and title. Whitman numbered the leaves 1-5 in pencil in the lower left corners. The leaves correspond to various numbered sections of the 1860 published version. In the 1872 Leaves of Grass Whitman transferred the poem to a "Leaves of Grass" group, and in 1881 it was finally moved, after several revisions through the different published versions, to the cluster "Autumn Rivulets."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass,Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 5
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00224
Title:  "Kosmos"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21.5 x 12.5 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 55 and revised by overwriting to 56. Leaf 1 corresponds to verses 1-6 of the 1860 version, and the lines on leaf 2 ("Who out of the theory of the/ earth,...") correspond to verses 7-10. Revised very little through the different editions, "Kosmos" appeared in 1872 and 1876 in a "Leaves of Grass" group in the supplement "Passage to India." In 1881 it was finally transferred to the cluster "Autumn Rivulets" within the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 6
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00225
Title:  "A hand-mirror"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally titled "Looking-Glass" and numbered 82 and revised by overwriting to 83. The poem remained unchanged and with the same title since its first appearance in the 1860 edition. This poem was titled but ungrouped until 1881, when Whitman finally placed it in the cluster "By the Roadside."

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 7
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00226
Title:  "Savantism"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Originally numbered 52 and revised by overwriting to 53. Ungrouped in the 1860 and 1867 Leaves of Grass, the poem "Savantism" was transferred to Passage to India in 1871 and from there to "Leaves of Grass" groups in the "Passage to India" annexes of the 1872 Leaves of Grass and the 1876 Two Rivulets. From there it was moved, finally (in 1881), to the "Inscriptions" cluster within the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00227
Title:  "Says"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 21 x 12.5 cm to 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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These manuscript lines were revised to form numbered sections 1 through 4 of the ungrouped poem "Says" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman cut four verse paragraphs from the poem in the 1867 Leaves of Grass version; from that point on the shortened poem appeared, ungrouped, under the title "Suggestions" until its final appearance in 1876.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00228
Title:  "Says"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 12.5 cm to 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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These manuscript lines were revised to form numbered section 5 of the ungrouped poem "Says" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman cut four verse paragraphs in the 1867 Leaves of Grass version; from that point on the shortened poem appeared, ungrouped, under the title "Suggestions" until its final appearance in 1876.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00229
Title:  "Says"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 12.5 cm to 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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These manuscript lines were revised to form numbered section 6 of the ungrouped poem "Says" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman cut four verse paragraphs in the 1867 Leaves of Grass version; from that point on the shortened poem appeared, ungrouped, under the title "Suggestions" until its final appearance in 1876.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 8
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00230
Title:  "Says"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 x 12.5 cm to 21.5 x 13 cm, handwritten
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These manuscript lines were revised to form numbered section 7 of the ungrouped poem "Says" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. Whitman cut four verse paragraphs in the 1867 Leaves of Grass version; from that point on the shortened poem appeared, ungrouped, under the title "Suggestions" until its final appearance in 1876. The cancelled lines on the top section of the manuscript appear to be a draft of lines that were never published but that bear great resemblance to the various "Thoughts" and "Thought (Of . . .)" poems Whitman published throughout the many editions of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 9
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00231
Title:  "Nearing Departure"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 16 x 20 cm, handwritten
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Whitman retitled the poem "To My Soul" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. In 1867 Whitman cut eight lines and revised others, retitling the poem "As Nearing Departure" and moving it to an untitled group of poems in the supplement "Songs Before Parting." In 1872 it was finally retitled "As the Time Draws Nigh" and transferred to the cluster "Songs of Parting" within the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 10
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00232
Title:  "So Long!"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 9 leaves, 15 x 9 cm, handwritten
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Whitman numbered the leaves 75-81 in the upper right corner, with the exception of leaves 6 and 7, which are numbered at top center. In 1860 this was the final poem in Leaves of Grass; in 1867 Whitman cut twenty-one lines and transferred it to the end of the last Leaves of Grass supplement "Songs of Parting." In 1872, with the transformation of this supplement into the cluster "Songs Before Parting," it was permanently fixed as the final poem in the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 11
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00234
Title:  "Sparkles from the Wheel"
Date: 1871
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 25.5 x 20 cm, handwritten
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First published not in the 1860 Leaves of Grass, but in the separate publication Passage to India in 1871. Whitman penciled in the note "Long Primer / middling wide measure" in the upper left corner of the first leaf, and on the verso of the second wrote and deleted (also in pencil) the note "The worship of God is, honoring his gifts in other men, each according to his genius, & loving the greatest men best. Those who envy or calumniate great men, hate God William Blake[.]" After being bound with the rest of the Passage to India poems as a supplement to Leaves of Grass, in 1881 the poem was permanently transferred to the cluster Autumn Rivulets within the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Leaves of Grass, Volume 2
Folder: 4, Page 12
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00235
Title:  "Fables"
Date: 1871
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 23 x 20 cm, handwritten
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This poem became numbered verse paragraph 4 of section 2 of the title poem in the separate 1871 publication "Passage to India." In 1881 the poem "Passage to India" was transferred, ungrouped, to the main body of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00133
Title:  "After death"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7 x 15 cm, handwritten
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Whitman apparently never used the recto lines, but the deleted lines on the verso bear a strong resemblance to the opening of his 1856 "Poem of The Sayers of The Words of The Earth," titled in successive editions "To the Sayers of Words" (1860 and 1867), "Carol of Words" (1871, 1876), and, finally (in the 1881 edition of Leaves), "A Song of the Rolling Earth." The undeleted ink line on the verso resembles a later draft of a line inscribed in Feinberg notebook #697 at the Library of Congress.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00134
Title:  "[As to you]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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This section was evidently pasted to and then pulled away from another page; some fragments of that other page remain affixed to the top. Beneath them can be discerned the ink number 2. In the upper left corner appears an "X" within parentheses, which was formerly covered by the other page. Whitman apparently never used this poem or fragment.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00006
Title:  "[Poem of]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4 x 8 cm, handwritten
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These notes, on a very small scrap of paper, could have represented an early stage of a number of poems.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00292
Title:  "A City Walk"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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A faint horizontal line beneath part of "A City Walk," along with the words' capitalization and central position on the page, indicate that Whitman may have contemplated using the words as the title of an independent poem. The closest he came to this title was "City of Walks and Joys," the name he originally assigned to "Calamus" 18 in his "Blue Book" revisions of the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass. This title was changed in the "Blue Book" to "City of orgies, walks and joys" and finally became "City of Orgies" in the 1867 edition. The manuscript also suggests making a list of things seen while "crossing the ferry" an idea later developed and published in the poem "Crossing Brooklyn Ferry" , 1860.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00293
Title:  "Original. Walks Down This Street;"
Date: about 1856
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7 x 16 cm paster to 4 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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Both parts of the title are underlined. A wavy line appears at the foot of that section. The word "Original" at the head of the upper section suggests that Whitman was sketching out a new poem for a revised edition of Leaves of Grass. If it was the 1860 edition, as his style of inscription here appears to indicate, it is possible that this leaf could represent an early stage of the poem that would eventually become "City of Orgies" , 1867.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00304
Title:  "Europe"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 16 x 14 cm, handwritten
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The recto notes represent an early stage of lines partially incorporated in "Poem of Salutation," the new third poem in the 1856 edition of Leaves of Grass, which was permanently retitled "Salut au Monde!" in the 1860 edition. If the note or title "Europe" suggests that Whitman might have first intended to divide his salutations into discrete sections based on the different continents, this is a plan he did not follow in the published version(s). The more polished (but deleted) lines on the verso represent a recasting in poetic form of several lines from the 1855 Preface. These were further revised for the 1856 "Poem of Many in One," after which the first verse drafted on this page (cut off here, and beginning "over the Texan, Mexican, Florid[ian,]/ Cuban seas...") was dropped. The two verses below this, however, were preserved relatively unchanged through the poem's many transformations until the text was essentially fixed under the title "By Blue Ontario's Shore" in 1881.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00305
Title:  "[And as the shores of the sea I live near and love are to me]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 13 x 14.5 cm, handwritten
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These two verses represent a draft of lines that would be further revised and incorporated in the new 1856 poem "Poem of Salutation," permanently retitled "Salut au Monde!" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass.. A plate mark can be clearly seen on the verso.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00289
Title:  "Poem of Pictures"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 6.5 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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A phrase beginning "Picture of one of/ the Greek games" appears in the upper right corner, delimited from the rest of the notes with two curved lines. The words "Spanish bull fight" appear in their own semicircle (damaged by Whitman's cutting) in the lower right corner. The lines seem to occupy a middle space between the very early notebook poem "Pictures" and the 1856 "Poem of Salutation" (ultimately "Salut au Monde!" ).

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00009
Title:  "[My two theses]"
Date: about 1856
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4 x 16 cm pasted to 10.5 x 16 cm, handwritten
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On a small composite leaf of white wove paper, ruled in blue on one side, containing notes about developing two theses to "run through all the poems . . .."

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00010
Title:  "[The circus boy is riding in the]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10.5 x 14 cm, handwritten
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The verso lines (beginning with the individually deleted line "O Walt Whitman, show us some pictures!" and continuing "America, always Pictorial!") represent a later draft of the beginning of the poem "Pictures" than the most complete extant version, which is contained in the pre-1855 "Pictures" notebook currently housed at Yale University. Critics have dated the lines to around 1880, when Whitman was working on a short version of "Pictures" both for magazine publication and for the 1881 edition of Leaves of Grass, where it was published as "My Picture-Gallery." But Whitman's early style of inscription in this draft, along with the line "It is round—it has room for America, north and south" and his use of his own name in the deleted first line, all suggest that Whitman may have inscribed this draft around the same time that he was working on the new 1856 "Poem of Salutations" (eventually "Salut au Monde!" ). This draft also suggests that at one point he may have considered linking what would become "Poem of Salutations" and the formally and thematically similar "Pictures" more directly. The lines on the recto, divided by a horizontal line, refer to images of a circus boy on a fleet horse and of watching those on a shore disappear. The relationship between either of these lines and Whitman's published works is unclear.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00014
Title:  "[How can there be immortality]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4.5 x 14.5 cm, handwritten
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These lines, appearing on a very small section of white laid paper cut and cropped irregularly, bear a strong resemblance to the (eventual) second verse paragraph in section 6 of "Starting from Paumanok," first published in 1860 as "Proto-Leaf." The fragmentary lines on the verso (beginning "Downward, buoyant, swif[t]"), represent a different version of a line incorporated in the pre-1855 notebook poem "Pictures" and of one inscribed in the 1854 notebook [I know a rich capitalist...], currently housed at the New York Public Library.

Boxes: MSS3829 Autograph Manuscript Studies for Leaves of Grass
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00015
Title:  "[Pure water]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 16 x 13 cm, handwritten
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Below the trial verses, separated from them by a diagonal pencil stroke, appears a cartoon hand pointing to the annotation "I must have/ Poem[.]"

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00238
Title:  "[I am a student]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9.5 x 15 cm, handwritten
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The themes expressed in this early fragment would inform the lines that eventually became section 2 of "Song of Myself;" Whitman never used it verbatim. On the verso appears an undeleted but heavily revised early draft of famous lines, beginning "The spotted hawk swoops by...," incorporated in what would constitute the final canto of the poem in the 1867 and later editions of Leaves of Grass.-->

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00248
Title:  "[A little sum laid aside for burial money—a few clapboards around]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 17 x 19 cm, handwritten
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This is a poetic rendition of a long sentence in the preface to the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass. The prose sentence begins, "Beyond the independence of a little sum laid aside for burial-money, and of a few clapboards around..."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00249
Title:  "[I subject all the teachings]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15.5 x 12 cm, handwritten
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These verses seem to have been part of a larger set of verses or poems. Because of the way the page is torn the final word could read "any," or it could just as easily read "an," indicating that a continuation of the lines has been lost. These lines prefigure section 6, especially beginning with the line "Here is the test of wisdom," of what would become "Song of the Open Road," first published in 1856 as "Poem of the Road."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00250
Title:  "[I call back blunderers]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4.5 x 19.5 cm pasted to 7 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
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The first few lines were never used, but the last two verses (beginning "I offer men no painted saucers...") share similarities with the final verse paragraph (beginning "Stop this day and night with me and you shall possess the origin of all poems,") of what would eventually become section 2 of "Song of Myself."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00251
Title:  "[Do I not prove myself]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8 x 18.5 cm, handwritten
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On the verso appear two undeleted lines beginning "Whatever I say of myself, you shall apply to yourself..." that eventually formed part of section 20 of "Song of Myself." The deleted pencil lines beginning "I think there will never be any more heaven or hell / than there is now," were revised to form what would eventually become the second verse paragraph of section 3 of "Song of Myself." After heavy revision the lines appearing on the recto of the manuscript were used in what would be section 41 of "Song of Myself." These lines also bear relation to the untitled 14th poem of the "Debris" cluster (1860). The lines were not among the various passages of "Debris" that survived in the final poems of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00253
Title:  "[Never fails]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14 x 15 cm, handwritten
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The lines, deleted with a single pencil stroke, appear after revision and expansion to have eventually formed part of section 21 of the cluster "Calamus" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass; in the 1867 edition this section received the title "That Music Always Round Me."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00254
Title:  "[My hand will not hurt what it holds]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 19 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
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The numbers 195 and 196 are inscribed on the verso and recto, respectively; these numbers, along with remnants of paste and binding tape along the left margin of the recto, suggest that the pages came from a notebook. The lines on the recto are deleted and appear to have been revised to form what is now section 28 of "Song of Myself." The verso contains undeleted notes that begin with a list of animals and plants ("cottonwood—mulberry—/chickadee—large brown water-dog"), followed by a verse ("The suicide / went to a lonesome place...") that Whitman revised for use ("The suicide sprawls on the bloody floor of the bedroom,") in what would eventually constitute section 8 of "Song of Myself." This verse is followed by another section of the natural "catalogue" ("locust, birch / cypress..."), below which appears a pair of verses (beginning "O dirt, you corpse—I reckon you are good manure—") used in what would be section 48 of the "Song of Myself." The list of flora and fauna could anticipate any number of similar lists in Whitman, but bears the strongest resemblance to section 29 of "Poem of Joys" (final title: "A Song of Joys" ), which first appeared in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00256
Title:  "[I am a curse]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 18.5 x 17.5 cm, handwritten
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One leaf inscribed and revised on both sides in pencil. The trial lines on the verso (beginning "His very aches are exstasy") seem to have been revised for inclusion in what is now section 29 of "Song of Myself." Whitman's unusual spelling of "ecstasy" indicates not only that the lines came very early in the process of writing Leaves of Grass, but that these lines may have originally been part of the proto- "Song of Myself" before being transferred to what would become "The Sleepers." The verso lines and the words "I am a curse" link this leaf to two sections of draft verses in the earliest Library of Congress notebook (#80) beginning "Fierce wrestler!" and "I am a curse."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00257
Title:  "[Black Lucifer was not dead]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10.5 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
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The deleted first line reads "I am a hell-name and a Curse..." The word "Sleepchaser's" appears in the upper right corner, perhaps indicating that Whitman was considering a title similar to the 1860 and 1867 title "Sleep-Chasings" even before the poem was first published in 1855, unless this is in fact a reworking of the section for the 1860 edition. The possibility of a post-1855 dating, however, appears to be slight given the similarities of paper choice and inscription techniques among other leaves and shared similarities to drafts in the earliest Library of Congress notebook. The poem "Sleep-Chasings" eventually became "The Sleepers" in 1871.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00258
Title:  "[Topple down upon him]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15.5 x 19 cm, handwritten
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This leaf, a reworking of the lines beginning "I am a Curse" in Library of Congress notebook #80, with verses added from the manuscript also in the University of Virgina collection that begins "I am a curse", appears to have come later in the revision process. The only line specifically linking the poem to the theme of slavery ("I look off the river with my bloodshot eyes, after / the steamboat that carries away my woman.—"), adapted from the "I am a curse" leaf, is deleted, and Whitman apparently rejected these lines and the "curse" theme in general as he moved toward the draft on the leaf in the Virgina collection that begins "I am a hell-name and a Curse...", which would eventuate in the 1855 published version. On the verso appear two sets of trial verses for what would eventually become the second verse paragraph of section 4 of the poem "Faces," which in 1855 was published as the sixth of twelve poems in the first edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00260
Title:  "[The sores on my shoulders are from his]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8 x 15 cm, handwritten
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Inscribed, revised, and deleted in pencil. On the verso appear the undeleted lines "Hear my fife! —I am a recruiter / Come, who will join my troop?" Scholars have recorded these lines as a version of the lines ("And now a merry recruiter passes, with fife and drum, seeking who will / join his troop...") in the pre-1855 notebook poem "Pictures." The image of the musician recruiting attention equally for the problems of all connects these lines with section 18 of "Song of Myself." Although the manuscript contains the phrase "iron necklace," which appears in the poem eventually titled "To A Foil'd European Revolutionaire" , the image of the steamboat carrying away the woman and the first person narrative style seem to connect this manuscript most clearly to the development of what would eventually become section 4 of "The Sleepers" first appearing in print with this title in 1871.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00261
Title:  "[Where the little musk ox carries his]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 6 x 19 cm, handwritten
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Inscribed and revised on both sides in pencil. The only line used from the recto ("Where the life car is drawn on the slip-noose") is deleted here; it became part of what would eventually form section 33 of "Song of Myself." The deleted verso lines (beginning "Who knows that I shall not myself / [...] time be a God, as pure and prodigious/ as any?") constitute a poetic revision of prose notes in Library of Congress notebook #85, and seem to have led up to what would eventually become section 48 of "Song of Myself."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00263
Title:  "[You there]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 12.5 x 20 cm, handwritten
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The left side of the manuscript is torn as if the page had been removed from a notebook. This page was apparently inscribed very close to the publication of the 1855 Leaves of Grass; with a few revisions it became part of what would eventually be section 40 of "Song of Myself." On the verso appear undeleted notes defining and illustrating such verse forms as "hexameters," "dactyl," "Spondee," "Iambus," and "Trochee." These notes represent an incomplete version of notes on a manuscript currently housed at Rutgers University. Scholars have commented that the Rutgers manuscript probably dates to 1856 or afterwards, when Whitman was pursuing a self-education in poetry, suggesting that the verso notes of this manuscript also date to that period.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00264
Title:  "[And their voices]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4.5 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
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A pencil question mark appears above a very faint line linking "valved" and "cornet." These half-prose, half-poetic notes were revised and incorporated in two separate verses of what would become "Song of Myself" : the eventual verse 597, in section 26 ("I hear...the keyed cornet") and verse 1067 in section 42 ("Ever the vexer's hoot! hoot! till we find where the sly one hides and bring him/ forth...").

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00265
Title:  "[The smell of the salt marsh]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8.5 x 20 cm, handwritten
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The first line originally read "Odor of the salt marsh, and of the mud and sea-weed[.]" An earlier version of these lines is also associated with proto- "Song of Myself" verses in Library of Congress Notebook #80 ("And the salt marsh and creek have/ delicious odors..."). The "unearthly laugh of the laughing-gull" reappears in what would eventually become line 763 (section 33) of "Song of Myself." Most of the lines were incorporated, however (after further revision), into the tenth poem of the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass. This poem was titled "Poem of The Child That Went Forth, and Always Goes Forth, Forever and Forever" in the 1856 edition, after which it became number 9 in the 1860 group "Leaves of Grass," number 1 of a different "Leaves of Grass" group in 1867, and, finally, "There Was a Child Went Forth" in the 1872 edition.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00266
Title:  "[Children and maidens—strong men]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7 x 21 cm, handwritten
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The laid paper was originally the last page of a letter; a few illegible words and part of a signature can be seen dimly through the back of the composite leaf. Whitman wrote his lines on the verso of the page after turning it sideways. These lines have no known relation to any published Whitman poem.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00267
Title:  "[Full of wickedness]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15.5 x 8 cm, handwritten
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The verses on the recto, while not published word-for-word until 1897, seem to represent an early draft of the poem first published as number 13 of the cluster "Leaves of Grass" in the 1860 Leaves of Grass, and eventually titled "You Felons on Trial in Courts." Whitman's careful script and verse forms here also resemble the methods of inscription used for the "Live Oak, with Moss" poems dated to the post-1856, pre-1860 period. The undeleted notes on the back are titled "Poems" . A cartoon hand in the left margin points to the phrase "religious emotions." Whitman's use of the title "Calamus Leaves" dates these notes to the same pre-1860 period as the deleted verses on the recto, since "Calamus-Leaves" was what he renamed the cluster "Live Oak, with Moss" before settling on "Calamus" for the 1860 edition. A section of the notes below the rest (beginning "spirituality—the unknown,...") is inscribed in verse form.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00268
Title:  "[From wooded Maine]"
Date: 1889
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 11 x 18 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The verso letter is dated "Aug 14th /89," and asks Whitman to send the unidentified writer a copy of the "latest special edition" of Leaves of Grass. These trial verses became part of "A Twilight Song" —subtitled, "for unknown buried soldiers, North and South"—which was first published in theMay, 1890 Century and then included in the second annex "Good-Bye My Fancy" in the 1892 "deathbed" edition of Leaves.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00269
Title:  "[I am become the poet of babes and]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4 x 14.5 cm pasted to 4.5 x 15 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The verso lines beginning "I think I could dash the girder of the earth / away" and "Surely I am out of my head!" are deleted with several pencil strokes. The deleted number 209 appears in the top right corner of the lower section. After much revision the recto lines, which are related to lines in Library of Congress Notebook #80, seem to have become part of what would be section 44 of "Song of Myself." The verso contains an early draft of lines eventually incorporated in section 27 of the poem.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00270
Title:  "[American air I have breathed]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4.5 x 18 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Although Whitman did not publish these verses himself, their structure and the type of paper upon which they are inscribed suggest a close relationship with the lines on another manuscript in the University of Virginia collection, which were revised to form part of section 14 of "Chants Democratic" in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass, a set of verses eventually transformed into an independent poem under the title "Poets to Come."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00271
Title:  "[Merely what I tell is not to justify me]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4 x 15 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The lines appearing on the recto of this manuscript bear a strong resemblence to the ideas expressed in the opening lines of section 14 of the poem "Chants Democratic" appearing in 1860 and which eventually became the independent poem "Poets to Come." . The lines on the verso (deleted with several vertical and horizontal pencil strokes) seem to have been rejected.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00273
Title:  "[Can ? make me so exuberant yet so faintish]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 6 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The recto verses bear some similarity to what would eventually form section 28 of "Song of Myself," while the deleted lines on the verso (beginning "This mouth is pulled by some sexton for his dismalest fee,") represent a fragment of draft lines eventually incorporated in the sixth poem of the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass, a poem permanently retitled "Faces" in the 1872 edition.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00275
Title:  "[To this continent comes the]"
Date: 1856-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10 x 13 cm pasted to 5 x 13 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
These lines share common ideas expressed throughout Leaves of Grass, especially in many of the new poems to the 1860 edition. The strongest verbal echoes appear in the poem "So long!" which expresses very similar ideas and the common words "menacing" and "offspring." The printed words "Leaves of" appearing on the verso indicate that Whitman composed this draft on a piece of paper cover from the 1855 edition.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00276
Title:  "[Ships sail upon the waters]"
Date: 1856-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15.5 x 14.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Part of the word "Leaves" appears in the lower right corner of the verso. On the verso, in blue pencil, appears a note, reading "Drum Taps—City of Ships" which appears to be in Whitman's hand. This may indeed have been a draft of the poem "City of Ships," which first appeared in 1865 as part of the independent publication Drum-Taps, but the similarities to the lines on another manuscript in the University of Virginia collection and lack of references to the Civil War indicate that it was inscribed prior to the publication of the the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00277
Title:  "[You are English]"
Date: 1856-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10 x 15 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Whitman's use of the word "Libertad" and his way of handling the theme of immigration suggest that this might be part of an early draft of the poem eventually known as "A Broadway Pageant," first published in the June 27, 1860 issue of the New York Times as "The Errand-Bearers."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00278
Title:  "[Remember if you are dying]"
Date: 1855-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8 x 15.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The verso lines (beginning "[sl]ueing,/...[be ]nding,/...halt in the shade,") represent a fragment of a polished pre-1855-publication draft of lines that would eventually belong in section 13 of "Song of Myself." Whitman used this leaf at some point after 1855 to jot down the recto verses perpendicular to the ruled lines. These seem to constitute a complete but very early draft of the poem "To One Shortly To Die," first published in the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass in the cluster "Messenger Leaves." In the upper right corner of the recto appear the words "note / last page of 'Ghost-seers'" in Whitman's hand, suggesting that he had considered forming a cluster under this title, never published, in Leaves of Grass, perhaps in the 1860 edition. The phrase "Ghost-seers" recalls a statement regarding Emerson in "Leaves-Droppings," a section of correspondence and commentary Whitman appended to the 1856 edition: "[Emerson] sees the future of truths as our Spirit-seers discern the future of man..."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00280
Title:  "[I must not deceive you—you are to die]"
Date: 1855-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 4 x 14.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The verso lines (beginning "[I] and nobody else am the greatest traitor,") represent a later draft than similar verses in Library of Congress Notebook #80 of what would eventually become part of section 28 of "Song of Myself." The recto lines were revised to form part of the 1860 poem "To One Shortly To Die."

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00281
Title:  "[As procreation]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 6 x 18.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The ideas expressed in this manuscript may have been used in the 1856 "Poem of Remembrances for A Girl or A Boy of These States," which became the sixth poem in "Chants Democratic and Native American" in 1860. It was subsequently shortened by several stanzas (1867) and retitled (1872) "Think of the Soul" before being excluded from Leaves of Grass with the publication of the 1881 edition.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00282
Title:  "[Of your soul I say truths to harmonize]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7.5 x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The verso contains the words "Leaves of" from a title page of one of the editions. The damaging of the words "The gripe" in the last line by cutting and the appearance of the tops of other letters above the lower edge suggest that this was the upper section of a larger leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00283
Title:  "[Who wills with his own brain]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 5 x 16 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Draft lines of an incomplete poem, of which other parts may have been lost or never written. These lines display some similarities to the eleventh untitled poem of the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass, named "Lesson Poem" in 1856 and finally, beginning with 1871's Passage to India, "Who Learns My Lesson Complete?"

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00284
Title:  "[Have I]"
Date: about 1856
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 9 x 18 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The words "Have I" at the beginning are inscribed on a small scrap of the same paper, which Whitman pasted over some deleted words in the upper right corner that cannot be discerned through the paper. Inscribed and extensively revised in pencil, these verses were part of a larger set of lines before Whitman cut away the rest. Although the page number and many words on the left side of the proof have been cut away, the remaining words identify it as being from the "Poem of Many in One (1856)," which eventually became "By Blue Ontario's Shore." These unused but also undeleted lines may have been intended for that poem or a number of other poems in Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00285
Title:  "[The beef, wheat, and lumber of Chicago]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 10.5 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Although these poetic notes are difficult to date, they may represent an intermediate stage between the 1855 Preface to Leaves of Grass and the 1856 "Poem of Many in One" (eventually "By Blue Ontario's Shore" ), which cast many sentences similar to these from the Preface in poetic form.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00286
Title:  "[O I must not forget]"
Date: 1857-1859
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14 x 12 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Whitman's use of the tax form and the strong similarity this fragment bears both to the 1856 "Poem of the Road" (later "Song of the Open Road" ) and to the 1860 "Proto-Leaf" (eventually "Starting from Paumanok" ) indicate that this may have been a revision of the former poem or, as seems more likely, an early draft of "Proto-Leaf" intended for the 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Original Manuscript Drafts for the Song of Myself
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00287
Title:  "[Man, before the rage of whose passions]"
Date: about 1855
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8 x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
These verses seem to have been part of a larger set. Although written in free verse, the rather conventional nature of this poem suggests an early date of inscription.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Broadway
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00156
Title:  "Broadway"
Date: 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 22.5 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft version of the poem "Broadway" . A note appearing at the top of the page states "Sent Herald March 3—sent again April 9 '88" indicating that this manuscript was likely composed and/or edited around the time of its first publication in the New York Herald, April 10, 1888.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Continuities
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00159
Title:  "[No birth-identity]"
Date: around 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 25.5 cm x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of the poem first published in the New York Herald, March 20, 1888 with the title "Continuities" . A note at the bottom of the page states "Sent to H March 17" indicating the draft was likely completed near the time of publication.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: A Carol-Cluster at 69
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00157
Title:  "A Carol-Cluster at 69"
Date: 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft version of a poem entitled "A Carol-Cluster at 69" which was likely composed and edited around the time of its first publication in the New York Herald, May 21, 1888. In the same year, this poem appears in the annex Sands at Seventy under the title "A Carol Closing Sixty-nine" .

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Carols Closing Sixty-Nine
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00158
Title:  "Carols at nearing Seventy"
Date: around 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 28 cm x 21.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft version of a poem appearing with two alternative titles: "Carols at Nearing Seventy" and "Carols Closing Sixty-Nine" . A note at bottom states "Sent to Lippincotts." The poem was first published with the title in the New York Herald, May 21, 1888. In the same year, this poem appears in the annex Sands at Seventy under the title "A Carol Closing Sixty-nine" .

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: The Dead Emperor
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00160
Title:  "The Dead Emperor"
Date: 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 11 cm x 21 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of a poem first published in the New York Herald, March 10, 1888 entitled "The Dead Emperor" . A note at top of the page states "sent Herald March 8" indicating that the draft was likely composed around the time of publication. On the verso appears part of a letter with Houghton Mifflin Publishers letterhead.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: The First Dandelion
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00162
Title:  "[Simple and Fresh]"
Date: around 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 26 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of a poem first published in the New York Herald, March 12, 1888 entitled "The First Dandelion" . A note on the bottom of the page states "sent to Herald March 11" indicating the draft was likely composed around the time of publication. On the verso appears a letter to Whitman from Witcraft dated 3/8/88.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Old Age's Lambent Peaks
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00164
Title:  "Old Age's Lambent Peaks"
Date: 1880s
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 25 cm x 20.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of a poem first printed in the Century, September, 1888 entitled "Old Age's Lambent Peaks" . A note in the top margin states: "sent to Century accepted—paid" indicating the draft was likely completed around the time of publication. Thee poem was collected into reprints of Leaves of Grass in the Annex of the 1884-88 editions and in the Birthday edition of 1889.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Orange Buds by Mail from Florida 3 copies
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00169
Title:  "[To-day]"
Date: 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of a poem first appearing in print in the New York Herald, April 23, 1888 entitled "To-day and Thee" . A note in the top margin: "sent April 21 to Herald" indicates that the draft was likely completed around the time of publication.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Orange Buds by Mail from Florida 3 copies
1Whitman Archive ID: uva.00165
Title:  "Orange buds by mail"
Date: 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14.5 cm x 24 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
A manuscript draft of the poem eventually titled "Orange Buds by Mail from Florida" and first published in the New York Herald, March 19, 1888.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Orange Buds by Mail from Florida 3 copies
2Whitman Archive ID: uva.00001
Title:  "Orange Buds by Mail from Florida"
Date: 1887
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 15.5 cm x 32.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft version of the note that appears in brackets before the start of the poem titled "Orange Buds by Mail from Florida" and first published in the New York Herald, March 19, 1888. A note at the bottom of the page states: "Sent to H March 17" indicating the draft was likely completed around the time of publication. On the verso the words "Walt Whitman" and "Camden New Jersey" are written in an unknown hand.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Paumanok
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00166
Title:  "Paumanok"
Date: 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of the poem titled "Paumanok" first published in the New York Herald, February 29, 1888. Notes at the top state "pub'd" and "personal." A note at the bottom states "sent to Herald Feb 27 '88" indicating the draft was likely completed around the time of publication.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: A Prairie Sunset
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00167
Title:  "A Prairie Sunset"
Date: around 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 14 cm x 21 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft of the poem titled "A Prairie Sunset" first published in the New York Herald, March 9, 1888. A note at the top states: "sent to Herald March 2" indicating the draft was likely completed around the time of publication.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: Sands at Seventy
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00168
Title:  "[With every heaving wave]"
Date: 1880s
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 24 cm x 14.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains a draft version of the poem "By That Long Scan of Waves" included in the group of poems "Fancies at Navesink" . The group was first published in Nineteenth Century, August, 1885.

Boxes: MSS3829-a Letters
Folder: The Wallabout Martyrs
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00171
Title:  "The Wallabout Martyrs"
Date: 1888
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 11.5 cm x 20.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4 
This manuscript contains a draft version of the poem "The Wallabout Martyrs" first published in the New York Herald, March 16, 1888. A note at the bottom states: "sent to Herald March 11" indicating the draft was likely completed around the time of publication. On the verso of the leaves appear scraps of a letter and an envelope addressed to Whitman in Camden.

Boxes: MSS3829 You Tides with Ceaseless Swell
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00140
Title:  "You tides with ceaseless swell"
Date: 1888-1889
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 25 cm x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
One leaf in ink on lined paper with pencil revisions. This poem "You Tides with Ceaseless Swell" was first published as part of the "Fancies at Navesink" group in Nineteenth Century, August 1885.

Boxes: MSS3829 Sea-Drift
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00135
Title:  "Sea-Drift"
Date: 
Physical Description: 20 leaves, 20 cm x 12 cm, corrected proofs
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6  |  7  |  8  |  9  |  10  |  11  |  12  |  13  |  14  |  15  |  16  |  17  |  18  |  19  |  20  |  21  |  22  |  23  |  24  |  25  |  26  |  27  |  28  |  29  |  30  |  31  |  32  |  33  |  34  |  35  |  36  |  37  |  38  |  39  |  40 
Revision of poem cluster originally titled "Sea-Shore Memories" contained in red bound volume measuring 26 cm x 18 cm. Revisions are made in ink and pencil on printed edition of the poem. WW apparently used two volumes to tear the leaves from, as every other page is slightly smaller than the rest; revisions are made only on the recto side of each leaf, verso is crossed out. Several leaves are cut apart and pasted in new order on other leaves or on lined paper. Leaf 8 is a handwritten MS.

Boxes: MSS3829 Song of the Broad-Axe
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00141
Title:  "Song of the Broad-Axe"
Date: 
Physical Description: 23 leaves, 20 cm x 12 cm, corrected proofs
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6  |  7  |  8  |  9  |  10  |  11  |  12  |  13  |  14  |  15  |  16  |  17  |  18  |  19  |  20  |  21  |  22  |  23  |  24  |  25  |  26  |  27  |  28  |  29  |  30  |  31  |  32  |  33  |  34  |  35  |  36  |  37  |  38  |  39  |  40  |  41  |  42  |  43  |  44  |  45  |  46 
Revision of poem cluster "Song of the Broad-Axe" contained in red slipcase measuring 24 cm x 15 cm. Revisions are made in ink and blue pencil on printed edition of the poem. WW apparently used two volumes to tear the leaves from, as every other page is slightly smaller than the rest, revisions are made only on the recto side of each leaf, and verso is crossed out.

Boxes: MSS3829 To an Exclusive
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00139
Title:  "To an Exclusive"
Date: 
Physical Description: 2 leaves, 20.5 cm x 13 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2  |  3  |  4 
This manuscript contains lines of an unpublished poem comparing the power of the voice of the poet and the common man to the "Exclusive." Whitman challenges future generations to follow his lead in representing those who remain unheard and to "respond to whatever needs response" at that time. The verso of the second leaf is an ordered list of poems beginning with "33 A Handful of Air" and ending with "72 Leaf."

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00294
Title:  "Poem of Names"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7.5 cm x 12.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Pencil on white paper. Pasted on top half of archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00295
Title:  "[?Poem of different incidents]"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7.5 cm x 12.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Notes toward a "poem of different incidents" are written in ink on pink paper, pasted on the bottom half of the leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00296
Title:  "Mothers precede all"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 8 cm x 13.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Pencil on verso of envelope. Pasted on top half of archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00297
Title:  "[In Poems]"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7.5 cm x 15.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Ink on blue paper. Pasted on bottom half of archival leaf. Verso has some notes for poem "[America, so young and so magnificent]."

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00300
Title:  "[Intersperse here and]"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 5.5 cm x 8 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Written in ink. Pasted on top third of archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00301
Title:  "Poem of Kisses"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 5 cm x 9.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Written in ink. Pasted in middle of archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00302
Title:  "Song in Poem of Kisses"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 7.5 cm x 11.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Written in pencil. Pasted on bottom third of archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00303
Title:  "Poem illustrative of the Woman under the 'new dispensation'"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 17 cm x 16 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Written in ink. Pasted to own archival leaf.

Boxes: MSS3829 Manuscript Studies of Womanhood
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00137
Title:  "[You woman, mother of children]"
Date: 1850-1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 24.5 cm x 24.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
This manuscript contains images of women as mother and wife. The husband and wife together at night appears consistently as one of the images used in the poem ultimately titled "Song of Myself" throughout all of the editions of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 As I Sit in Twilight, Late
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00147
Title:  "As I Sit in Twilight, Late, or twilight song"
Date: around 1865 or 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 30 cm x 22 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of the poem "As I Sit in Twilight" which Whitman eventually retitled "A Twilight Song" and published in Century, May 1890.

Boxes: MSS3829 As I Sit in Twilight, Late
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00002
Title:  "[As I sit in twilight alone by the flicker]"
Date: around 1865 or 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 26 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of the poem "As I Sit in Twilight" which Whitman eventually retitled "A Twilight Song" and published in Century, May 1890.

Boxes: MSS3829 As I Sit in Twilight, Late
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00003
Title:  "As I sit in twilight"
Date: around 1865 or 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 27 cm x 20 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of the poem "As I Sit in Twilight" which Whitman eventually retitled "A Twilight Song" and published in Century, May 1890.

Boxes: MSS3829 As I Sit in Twilight, Late
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00004
Title:  "Unknown"
Date: around 1865 or 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 28.5 cm x 19.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of a poem Whitman titled "Unknown" and which eventually became "A Twilight Song" which was published in Century, May 1890.

Boxes: MSS3829 As I Sit in Twilight, Late
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00005
Title:  "Unknown"
Date: around 1865 or 1888
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 27.5 cm x 21 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of a poem Whitman titled "Unknown" and which eventually became "A Twilight Song" which was published in Century, May 1890.

Boxes: MSS3829 As of Forms
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00124
Title:  "As of Forms"
Date: around 1860
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 21.5 cm x 13 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
Manuscript draft of the unpublished poem "As of Forms" which is possibly one of a group of poems Whitman composed prior to the third edition of Leaves of Grass.

Boxes: MSS3829 Sounds of the Winter/The Unexpress'd
Whitman Archive ID: uva.00152
Title:  "Old Age Echoes"
Date: 1891
Physical Description: 1 leaf, 52.5 cm x 21.5 cm, handwritten
View Images:  1  |  2 
The general title, "Old Age Echoes," appears at the top of the page. Beneath that title are two poems with individual titles: "Sounds of the Winter" and "The Unexpress'd." Pasted to the leaf below the second poem is a woodcut engraving of Whitman along with his autograph. The untitled lines directly following the picture and autograph eventually become the poem titled "After the Argument." The three poems were first published together in Lippincott's Magazine, March 1891, under the general title "Old Age Echoes." .


Restrictions: None

Copyright: The use of Archives and Special Collections material is governed by the U.S. Copyright Law (title 17 U.S. Code).

Alternative Format: Original documents held in The Clifton Waller Barrett Library of American Literature, The Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia

Preferred Citation:  Clifton Waller Barrett Library of American Literature, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia


Repository Contact Information:
Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, Alderman Memorial Library
P.O. Box 400110, University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4110


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