Published Works


New York Aurora

In February 1842, Whitman began writing brief articles for the New York Aurora, established in November 1841 as an “American newspaper” that would concentrate on American writers and American news in contrast to what the editors saw as an undue preoccupation with European writers and news in most of the New York City newspapers. The Aurora was a daily of four pages, which sold for two cents a copy, and was initially edited by Thomas Low Nichols, a social reformer and journalist. When Nichols left the paper in February 1842, Whitman was named the editor by the publishers, who announced on March 28, 1842 that they had “secured the services of MR. WALTER WHITMAN, favorably known as a bold, energetic and original writer, as their leading editor.” Whitman wrote a variety of articles for the paper on education, politics, and current events, including a brief review of Ralph Waldo Emerson’s lecture “Nature and the Powers of the Poet” that he attended on March 5, 1842. Although Whitman did not meet Emerson at that lecture, Emerson’s impact on his career as a poet is widely regarded as crucial. In his review, Whitman wrote that “the business of the poet is expression—the giving utterance to the emotions and sentiments of the soul.” Whitman published two poems in the Aurora but left his position as editor by late April, following disagreements with the publishers over their efforts to shape his editorials.


"The Death and Burial of McDonald Clarke." New York Aurora 18 March 1842: [1].

"Time to Come." New York Aurora 9 April 1842. Revised version of “Our Future Lot,” which first appeared in the Long-Islander sometime before 31 October 1838 (the relevant copies of the Long-Islander are no longer extant). More specific information about the Long-Islander printing is unknown at this time. "Our Future Lot" was reprinted in the Long Island Democrat on 31 October 1838. When published as "Time to Come" in the Aurora, the poem appeared with the notation "From the Democratic Review." To date, however, we have not been able to verify that it was originally published there.


Belasco, Susan. "Leaves of Grass and the Poetry Marketplace of Antebellum America. Leaves of Grass: The Sesquicentennial Essays. Ed. Susan Belasco, Ed Folsom, and Kenneth M. Price. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press2007. 179-198.

Blodgett, Harold W., and Sculley Bradley, eds.Leaves of Grass: Comprehensive Reader's Edition. New York: New York University Press, 1965.

Greenspan, Ezra. Walt Whitman and the American Reader. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Loving, Jerome. Walt Whitman: The Song of Himself. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Myerson, Joel. Walt Whitman: A Descriptive Bibliography. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.

Renner, Dennis K."New York Aurora." Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia. Ed. J. R. LeMaster and Donald D. Kummings. New York: Garland, 1998.

Rubin, Joseph Jay and Charles H. Brown, Ed. Walt Whitman of the New York Aurora.State College, PA.: Bald Eagle Press, 1950.

Whitman, Walt. The Journalism. Eds. Herbert Bergman, Douglas A. Noverr, and Edward J. Recchia. Vol. 1: 1834-1846. The Collected Writings of Walt Whitman. New York: Peter Lang,1998.

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